Last changes date: October 27, 2003
At the present time welding as a high performance method of obtaining of metal
joining is one of main manufacturing processes in the different industries. To
the boundary the XX and XXI centuries the welding production has been formed
into the major technological area of engineering and number of branches of
industry, closely bound with another technological processes and representing
the complexes of high technologies requiring the usage of complicate equipment,
adaptive control systems and robots, application of advanced resources of
computer technology. Among major number of modern manufacturing processes of
materials processing the welding has introduced the most important, revoluting
changes in producing of constructions for different applications. More than 50 %
of the bulk national product of industrially developed countries forms with the
help of welding and related technologies; up to 2/3 global consumptions of a
rolled steel goes on production of welded assemblies and constructions2.
welding is a
branch, as largely depends on a state of welding
technologies a scientific-technical, economical and technological potentials of
any country. It is possible to illustrate it, in particularly, following the
known fact: at implantation in an industry of refined steels purified by methods
of electroslag refining and having an electroslag under of contents impurities,
the arisen problems of metal penetration with the welding arc have reduced in a
stopping of defence plants producing the missiles .
welding manufacturing processes will widely be utillized at manufacture of
important constructions working in diversified and complicated conditions. The
welding processes has been passing the continuous adapting to orbital space
conditions3, are widely applied in aviation4. In
connection with intensive by mastering of oil(petroleum) deposits of a
continental shelf the sizes of application of a underwater welding grow at a
building the gas-oil-pipelines and marine oil platforms . Usage guesses
composite metal constructions in modern shipbuilding, construction of buildings
considerable size of welding operations, application of composite equipment and
unique technology. Broad application discover welding high concentrated heat
sources: the laser welding of steels and aluminium alloys intensively has been
used in motor industry, where an electric resistance welding until recently was
applied mainly .
the present stage the major condition of further perfecting and intensification
of welding production is not only further development of fundamental theory of
welding with usage of advanced achievements in different areas of fundamental
and applied sciences, but also creation of high performance methods both
resources of simulation and modelling of welding processes, their control and
optimal handle in real time. It is especially important in modern conditions,
when the science has gained a new system quality, extends on such level of
integration, at which scientific researches generating new technologies, appear
in a strong dependence from a state of major number of scientific directions,
among which there can be enough far on subject. The blanks on main directions of
scientific search can plot serious damage to priority technologies, reducing
their technological metrics and productivity in manufacturing [4,5].
conditions of a globalization of world economy and commercial productions the
integration of welding technologies with modern high technologies on the basis
of application of computers converts a product engineering for joining of
materials by welding in the high technology complexes meeting the most strict
requirements of modern computer-controlled production, European and World norms
of quality, off-the-shelf standards on released production. Thus the accelerated
transmission of the off-the-shelf technologies to production is possible only at
cooperative scientific researches joining together efforts of different
companies, universities, professional societies5.
of the technological information on welding on numerous sites Internet
continuously grows; the major sizes of the professional information for the
welders are disposed on compact disks CD-ROM, having a considerable
informational capacity [6,7].
is wider in modern welding production, to a science and engineering the modern
Internets - technologies will be utillized: corporate development of the
composite projects at dispersion of the performers in different corporations,
organizations and countries, shared use of research and development and
industrial databases, fissile publication of papers in Web-magazines [8 10].
It allows to expand and to speed up exchange of the technological information on
actual problems of welding production, science and engineering.
the present stage there is "embedding" of mathematical modelling in
frame of an information society: the methods and resources of mathematical
modelling become an intellectual core of information technologies and all
process of society informatization6. Therefore major attention is now
given to application of modern methods of mathematical modelling and information
technologies. The Paton Welding Institute (Kiev, Ukraine) has conducted a number
of seminars on application of mathematical methods in welding7,8,9,10;
to problems of application of computer technologies and the mathematical
modelling are dedicated a number of other seminars and subject proceedings11,12
British Institute of Welding13 regularly holds the conferences under
a common subject title «Computer Technology in Welding»14 (Chairman
Lucas), which transactionses are issued by the separate receiving
tanks. Technical University of Graz (Austria) once per 2 years organizes
scientific seminars «Numerical Analysis of Weldability » (Chairman prof.
Cerjak H.15), on which the advanced achievements are considered in
the field of mathematical modelling of welding processes.
American Welding Society also regularly will carry out(spend) similar
conferences and publishes their transactionses. In Russia at the Tula State
University the conferences «Computer technologies in joining of materials» (Chairman
Japan Welding Society had conducted in 1996 an International Workshop on the
subject of «A role of a welding science and technologies in 21 century»16.
In a number of countries the scientific researches on mathematical modelling of
processes will actively be carried out at welding [11,12].
scientific and applications of welding processes the mathematical methods of
simulation of fundamental appearances having a place at derivation of a welded
joint are actively applied [13-20 etc.]; the computer technology will widely be
utillized, the potent supercomputers are applied to composite models of a
welding bath .
modern methods of mathematical modelling have turned to potent tools of research
and knowledge of processes happening in complicate welding technological systems.
The computer simulation of the process of welding and derivation of a welded
joint is referred to a priority direction in development of concrete welding
is far from being for all important technological schemes of different processes
of welding the effective formalised descriptions of their main peculiarities are
obtained. It especially concerns to most composite variants of welding
technologies, such as multipass arc welding of metal of major width, welding of
not rotary junctions of tubes, welding
different space positions. The task becomes complicated by an extremely major
diversity of weld materials, types of welds and joints, ways of welding,
technological schemes within the framework of each way, broad bands of variation
of main and auxiliary parameters of the mode of welding.
difficulties of solution of many problems, simulation and optimising of welding
processes are linked with high-level interdisciplinarity of the tasks for
welding production, science and engineering. In a modern science there is a
number of scientific directions having interdisciplinary character: except for
information theory and cybernetics a synergetics as a science about processes of
self-organizing in composite nonequilibrium and unstable systems17,18
here enters also.
high level interdisciplinarity of problems of welding causes the appearance of
padding barriers between separate technological directions and creates serious
difficulties at development of many sections of the theory of welding processes.
The creator of cybernetics
Norbert Wiener19 spoke that «...the
important researches are delayed that in one area the outcomes already for a
long time becoming classical in adjacent areas are not known».
it is scored in , in many areas of a science and engineering the application
of advanced methods of mathematical modelling and modern information
technologies restrains not so much by shortage of facilities and resources of
computer technology, but mainly by absence of informative mathematical models.
Nevertheless, to the present time the considerable experience is accumulated in
the field of developing of mathematical models of the welding processes
permitting not only to receive the formalised description of their main
peculiarities, but also effectively to control them, to optimise conditions of
the processes of derivation from a welded joint, to prevent appearance of
intolerable defects. Some outcomes obtained by resources of mathematical
modelling, have allowed to obtain the engineering solutions at a level of the
inventions or know-how, protected by appropriate patent documents.
the same time considerable proportion of the important technological information
is scattered on a great many of periodic and proceeding issuings published by
the different writers on miscellaneous languages. There are few publications
dedicated methodology, philosophy and efficiency of mathematical modeling of
physical processes at welding; in particularly, in works of
, and also in publications20-24 the common and special
problems of mathematical modelling of welding processes are considered.
present monograph is an attempt of systematization of gained experience with the
purpose of definition of the main approaches to build-up of effective
mathematical models, principles of their practical implementation on the basis
of usage of advanced software and off-the-shelf resources of computer technology.
As modern information technologies of steel the essential and important part of
production of welded assemblies, in operation considers a set of problems of
mathematical modelling of welding processes on the basis of computer
of an exceptional variety and complexity of used mathematical models development
of mathematical modelling of welding processes as the separate technological
direction is subject to particular peculiarities, characteristic for any branch
of a science, though has a number of particular features. Therefore one of
overall objectives of the given operation consists of detection of these
peculiarities and direction finding of further development of methods and
resources of simulation for their most effective operational use by optimization
conditions for manufacturing processes of fusion welding.
Structure of the monograph and
principle of presentation of a material.
A major diversity of used methods and resources of mathematical modelling of
welding processes, and also the major sizes of the publications on these
problems predetermine importance of a sequence of presentation of outcomes of
numerous operations in this area.
volume of experimental researches of welding processes and creation of new weld
procedures always was anticipated with basic researches in this area25,
therefore in the present operation the considerable attention is given to
outcomes of experiments for such technological schemes of welding, on which the
mathematical models while miss or are advanced unsufficiently.
the chapter 1 the important role of
information technologies in the modern computer-controlled production of welded
assemblies is exhibited. The application of these technologies is founded on
broad usage of different mathematical models, the features of build-up and
principles of which application essentially depend on the solved practical tasks.
chapter 2 is dedicated to examination
of information flows the technological publications as on a problem «Weld
formation at fusion welding», and on common problems of welding production,
science and engineering. The description of the database under the publications
dedicated problems of mathematical modelling of a broad circle of processes
happening at derivation of a weld is reduced. On the basis of application of the
Bradford law the analysis of streams frame for the technological information
concerning is fulfilled to problems of optimization of welding processes and
their mathematical modelling. The enumeration of the most informative periodic
and prolonging issuings is defined.
the chapter 3 the philosophy and
features of mathematical modelling of processes of arc welding surveyed. The
classification of models, and also factors, included in them is given. The
numerous examples of build-up of mathematical models of a different type and
their practical implementation for solution of problems of formalising of the
description of welding processes and optimization of a weld procedure are
chapter 4 is dedicated to surface and
interphase interactions, as to the important sort of appearances happening in a
welding pool and at electrode metal transfer. The considerable attention is
given to manifestation in welding processes of Marangoni effect, causing the
thermal capillary flows of molten metal and much influential in a number of
cases on weld formation and penetration of welded metal. Some types of
instabilities of boundary surfaces which are capable to influence on origin of
defects of creation of a weld are circumscribed.
the chapters 5... 9 the number
important for practice of the technological schemes and mathematical models
circumscribing feature of creation of a seam surveyed at usage of these schemes.
The system of capillary-hydrostatic mathematical models permitting on the basis
of the uniform theoretical approach variation-energy method, consisting in usage,
and solution of the main equation of the theory of capillary attraction is
circumscribed, to reveal the major factors defining the form of a weld and
influential in origin of defects.
main features of application of the given approach explicitly are illustrated on
an example of creation of a butt weld in a flat position (chapter
5). The effect of welding position is surveyed on such important
technological schemes as welding in an overhead position, and also execution of
horizontal welds on an inclined and vertical planes (chapter
considerable attention is given to formation the most frequently of fillets,
meeting in welded assemblies, and also execution flute welds superimposed.
a zone of transition between a weld material and parent metal for lowering
stress concentration both rise fatigue and dynamic strength of welded joints and
constructions (chapter 7). Fillet and
have a number of common features: close connection with strength properties of
welded joints, similarity of conditions of creation, usage of the similar
designed equations. Therefore they are considered in one chapter from uniform
positions of structurally - technological optimization.
the chapter 8 the technological
scheme of weld formation surveyed important for practical applications at
welding of thin metal with through foundering on weight. The factors rendering
most strong effect on the form of a seam and a condition of his(its) steady
creation are defined.
chapters 9 and 10 are dedicated to
mathematical modeling and optimization most difficult for practical
implementation of the technological schemes to arc welding of not rotary
junctions of tubes (chapter 9) and
multipass welding of thick metal with bunching of cable conductors of ridges (chapter
all technological schemes surveyed in the given monography, the emphasis is made
in-signalling of mathematical models with technological features of weld
formation in different conditions. In this connection the outcomes of many
experimental researches pertinent to cases in point are reduced especially when
the appropriate mathematical models while are advanced unsufficiently.
the chapter 11 the main peculiarities
of metal penetration are circumscribed at arc welding and the possible(probable)
approaches to build-up of mathematical models of this process are exhibited.
into account major importance of such factor, as power effect of an arc on
welded metal, in the chapter 12 is
given retrospective review of outcomes of researches, bound as with experimental
methods of learning of this appearance, and with methods of its mathematical
the chapter 13 the problems of
derivation of such defects of form of a seam, as undercuts, gas and slag
inclusions, nonuniformity of appearance, unmeltings in one-pass and multipass
welds are surveyed.
chapter 14 is dedicated to electrode
metal transfer and methods of its mathematical modeling, control and
optimization. The main approaches to build-up of mathematical models of this
process, detection of the major factors influential in its weep here are
Savitsky M.M. Weld procedures of high-resistance steels in a rocket
manufacturing // Automatic Welding (Kiev). 1999. No.8. P.30 36 (in
Habrekke T., Armstrong M., Berge J.O. Deep water pipeline welding and repairs
using modern computer technology to create a diverless future for statoil //
Proc. 7th Int. Conf. «Computer Technology in Welding» [July 811, 1997, San
Francisco, CA]. (NIST Spec. Publ. 1997. 923). 1997. P.31 41.
Riches S.T. Laser welding in automobile manufacture // Weld. and Metal Fabric.
1993. Vol.61, No.3. P.79 83.
Kara-Murza S.G. Problems of intensification of a science: the technology of
scientific researches. Moscow: Science Publishing, 1989. 248 p. (in
Moscovchenko A.D. A problem for integration of fundamental and technological
knowledges. of Tomsk: TGU Publishing, 1999. 172 p. (in Russian)
H. De theorie van het TIG-lassen op CD-ROM // Lastechniek. 2000, 66.
No.7 8. S.6 9.
S. Interaktives Nachschlagewerk für Wissen in der Schweßtechnik // Praktiker.
2000. Bd.52, H.8. S.306 307.
White W. Welded connections on the Internet // Weld. J. 1997, Vol.76.
No.5. Ð.55 59.
Taraborkin L.A., Makoveckaya O.K., Bernadsky V.N. Introduction in Internet for
the experts in the field of welding // Automatic Welding (Kiev). 1998.
No.4. C.16 24. (in Russian)
Kharitonov V.V., Colomein V.A., Bogatov A.A. Development of a knowledge base on
production of tubes on the basis of Internets-technologies // Metallurgy and
derivation. Proc. 1st Int, Conf. [Ekaterinburg, 7 9 June, 2000].
Ekaterinburg, 2000. P.110 111. (in Russian)
Yurioka N., Koseki T. Modelling activities in Japan // Mathematical Modelling of
Weld Phenomena 3. Eds. H.Cerjak, H.K.D.H.Bhadeishia. London: TWI, 1996?.
Zhang C. Development of numerical analysis on welding in China // Mathematical
Modelling of Weld Phenomena 3. Eds. H.Cerjak, H.K.D.H. Bhadeisha. London:
TWI, 1996. P.531 542.
Paton B.E. Welding and mathematics // Automatic Welding (Kiev). 1966.
No.7. C.1 2. (in Russian)
Neumann A. Mathematik in der Schweißtechnik // Schweisstechnik (DDR). 1979.
Bd.29, H.10. S.453 455.
Masubuchi K. Applications of numerical analysis in welding // Welding in the
World. 1979, Vol.17. No.11 12. P.268 295.
Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds / T.Zacharia, J.M.Vitek, J.A.Goldak
et al // Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering.
1995, Vol.3. No.2. P.265 288.
Zacharia T., Chen Y. Modelling of fundamental phenomena in gas tungsten arc
welds // Int. J. of Materials and Product Technology. 1998, Vol.13. No.1
2. P.77 88.
Jönsson P.G., Szekely J., Choo R.T.C. et al Mathematical models of transport
phenomena associated with arc-welding processes: a survey // Model. and Simul.
in Mater. Sci. and Eng. 1994. No.2. Ð.995 1016.
Kou S. Transport phenomena in materials processing. New York; Chichester:
John Wiley and Sons, 1996. 669 ð.
DebRoy T., David S.A. Physical processes in fusion welding // Reviews of Modern
Physics. 1995, Vol.67. No.1. P.85 112.
Simunovic S., Zacharia T. Supercomputing applications in welding simulations //
Trends in Welding Research: Proc. of 4th Int. Conf., [5 8 June, 1995,
Gatlinburg, Tennessee]. 1995. P.19 24.
Bernadsky V.N. Japan defines the priorities in the field of welding upon XXI
Automatic Welding (Kiev). 2002. No.3. P.46 49. (in Russian)
Popov J.P., Samarsky A.A. Computational experiment // Computers, models,
computational experiment. Introduction to computer science from positions of
mathematical modeling. Moscow: Science Publishing, 1988. P.16 78. (in
Conn W.M. Die technische Physik der Lichtbogen-schweissung einschliefilich der
Schweißmittel. Berlin: Springer, 1959. 386 s.
Mathematical modelling of an electric arc / V.S.Engelsht, D.S.Asanov,
V.C.Gurovich et al. Frunze: Ilim Publishing, 1983. 363 p. (in Russian)
Lancaster J.F. The physics of welding. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1983. 296
Sudnik V.A., Erofeev V.A. Calculations of welding processes on a computer. -
Tula: TulPI Publishing, 1986. - 100 p. (in Russian)
Shzerbinin E.V. Electroslag welding and melting with controlled MHD-processes.
Moscow: Machinebuilding Publishing, 1989. 272 p. (in Russian)
Radaj D. Schweißprozeßsimalation: Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Düsseldorf:
Verl. für Schweißen und Verwandte Verfahren, DVS-Verl., 1999. 193 s.
Paton B.E. Science. Engineering. Progress. Moscow: Science Publishing, 1987.
414 p. (in Russian)
Paton B.E. Problems of welding on a boundary of centuries // Automatic Welding (Kiev).
1999. No.1. P.414. (in Russian)
Paton B.E. Welding in space and in a world ocean the technological problems
of XXI century
Automatic Welding (Kiev). 1997. No.10. P.38. (in Russian)
Shtrikman M.M. A
state and tendencies of development of welding technologies in aircraft
manufacturing // Welding Production (Moscow) 2000. No.8. P.23
30. (in Russian)
Eagar T.W. Technology transfer and cooperative research in Japan // Weld. J.
1989, Vol.68. No.1. P.39 43.
Samarsky A.A. and Michailov A.P. Mathematical modeling. Ideas. Methods. Examples.
Moscow: SciencePhysical-Mathematical Literature Publishing, 1997. 320
p. (in Russian)
Mathematical methods in research of processes of a special electrometallurgy /
Ed. Paton B.E.
Kiev: Naukova dumka Publishing, 1976. 196 p. (in Russian)
Mathematical methods in welding // Materials of IV of summer school of CEH
Countries-Members. Kiev: Naukova dumka Publishing, 1981. 292 p. (in
Mathematical methods in welding // Proc. of the Paton Welding Institute.
Kiev: PWI Publishing, 1986. 176 p. (in Russian)
Applications of mathematical methods in welding // Proc. of the Paton Welding
Institute. Kiev: PWI Publishing, 1988. 166 p.
Mathematical modeling of metallurgical and welding processes / Ed. Gorinin I.V.
Moscow: Metallurgy Publishing, 1983. 129 p. (in Russian)
Applications of mathematical methods and computer in welding / Eds. K.M.Gatovsky,
V.A.Karkhin, L.A.Copelman. Leningrad: LDNTP Publishing, 1987. 114 p. (in
TWI, The Welding Institute (Abington, Great Britain).
Street J. Computer technology in welding the first international conference
// Metal Constr. 1987, Vol.19. No.2. P.81 83.
Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena / Eds. H.Cerjak, H.K.D.H.Bhadeshia,
K.Easterling. London: Institute of Materials. Vol.1,2,3,4,5,6.
Proc. of 6th International Symposium "The Role of Welding Science and
Technology in the 21st Century" [Nagoya, Japan, 19 21 November, 1996].
Ed. Matsunawa A.
H. Synergetics. Instability hierarchies of self-organizing systems and devices.
Springer Verlag, 1983.
I. and Stengers I. Order out of Chaos: Man's new dialogue with nature.
Bantam: New York.
N. Cybernetics : Control and communication in the animal and the machine.
2nd. Ed //
Mass.: The MIT Press, 1961.
Pohodnya I.K., Demchenko V.F. , Demchenko L.I. Mathematical modeling of gases
the welds. Kiev: Naukova dumka Publishing, 1979. 56 p. (in Russian)
Gladkov E.A., Chernishov G.G. Mathematical models at research, calculation and
designing of welding processes. Moscow: MGTU Publishing, 1989. 109 p. (in
Buchmayr B. Computer in der Werkstoff- und Schweißtechnik // Anwendung von
mathematischen Modellen. Düsseldorf: DVS Verlag, 1991. 444 p.
Mathematical modeling of welding processes // V.V.Bashenko, B.V.Fedotov,
N.A.Sosnin etc. Leningrad: LPI Publishing, 1991. 70 p. (in Russian)
Grong G. Metallurgical modelling of welding. 2nd Edition. Ed. H.K.D.H.
Bhadeisha. London: Institute of Materials, 1997. 608 p.
Eagar T.W. Welding and joining: moving from art to science // Weld. J. 1995,
Vol.74. No.6. P.49 55.